MADE3  3.0
Modal Aerosol Dynamics for Europe, adapted for global applications, 3rd generation
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Introduction
made3.png
Schematic illustration of the MADE3 modes and aerosol composition.

MADE3 (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications, 3rd generation) is an aerosol dynamics submodel for application within the MESSy framework. As a successor to MADE-in ([2]) and MADE as described by [6], it draws heavily on the work by [13] and [4].

The first generation of MADE was developed for application in a regional model by [1]. Subsequently, MADE was adapted for global applications and implemented into the general circulation model ECHAM4 by [6], and later transformed into a submodel ([7]) for the MESSy framework. The second generation submodel MADE-in was developed by [2] as an extension to the MADE version used by [7].

For the third generation submodel MADE3, the microphysical calculations (i.e., condensation/evaporation and coagulation) were extended to also take into account coarse particles, which were formerly regarded as passive. The gas-particle partitioning scheme was also extended, namely by inclusion of the hydrochloric acid/chloride equilibrium.

The aerosol size distribution is described in MADE3 by a superposition of nine lognormal modes in three different size ranges, namely the Aitken (ks, km, ki), accumulation (as, am, ai) and coarse modes (cs, cm, ci). In each size range, one mode represents fully soluble particles (ks, as, cs), one mode represents mixed particles (km, am, cm), and one mode represents insoluble particles (ki, ai, ci). Particles can consist of up to nine different components in MADE3:

  • sulfate (SO4),
  • ammonium (NH4),
  • nitrate (NO3),
  • sea-spray components other than chloride (Na),
  • chloride (Cl),
  • particulate organic matter (POM),
  • black carbon (BC),
  • mineral dust (DU), and
  • water (H2O).

MADE3 treats all aerosol-specific microphysical processes in the following sequence (using an operator-splitting approach):

  1. gas-particle partitioning via the thermodynamic equilibrium model EQSAM,
  2. condensation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and organic vapors (the latter being strongly simplified, see also Namelist file),
  3. new particle formation (binary H2SO4/H2O nucleation), and
  4. coagulation.

For a more detailed model description, please refer to [5].

For the coupling to other submodels (i.e., optical properties, radiative effects, transport, cloud effects, cloud processing, scavenging, deposition), please refer to Couplings and output.

The MADE3 code is organized in three code files and one namelist file: